The earliest examples of the breed were white or occasionally brown or black. Queen Victoria adopted a small red Pomeranian in 1888, which caused that color to become fashionable by the end of the 19th century.
Pomeranians have a thick double coat, and while grooming is not difficult, breeders recommend that it be done daily to maintain the quality of the coat and because of its thickness and the constant shedding, with trimming every 1–2 months. The outer coat is long, straight, and harsh in texture while the undercoat is soft, thick and short. The coat knots and tangles easily, particularly when the undercoat is being shed, which happens twice a year.
In modern times, the Pomeranian comes in the widest variety of colors of any dog breed, including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable, black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, plus combinations of those colors. The most common colors are orange, black or cream/white.
Pomeranians are typically a very friendly, playful and lively breed of dog. They love to be around their owners and are known to be protective of them. Pomeranians are alert and aware of changes in their environment and barking at new stimuli can develop into a habit of barking excessively in any situation. They are somewhat defensive of their territory and will thus bark when they encounter any outside noises. Pomeranians are intelligent dogs, respond well to training, and can be very successful in getting what they want from their owners. They are extroverted and enjoy being the center of attention but can become quite aggressive and dominant if not well trained. The use of toys can be an effective tool in encouraging Poms to spend time alone.
A well-bred dog on a good diet with appropriate exercise will have few health problems, and if kept trim and fit a Pomeranian is a sturdy dog. Some health issues can develop as a result of lack of attention to grooming, and teeth, ear and eye cleaning. With routine care these problems can be avoided. They are prone to early tooth loss and feeding them dry food is recommended. Poms are one of the breeds with the smallest average litter size, with various source giving numbers of between 1.9 and 2.7 puppies per litter.